Unimaginable as it could appear, most Brazilian households, even the poorest, have their very own properties.
That is maybe one of many few optimistic features of the exclusionary city mannequin that prevailed in Brazil within the second half of the twentieth century, based mostly on suburban subdivisions, sponsored housing tasks, land occupations and socio-territorial segregation.
For essentially the most half, house possession was achieved at nice sacrifice, by self-construction, collective effort, or paying a few years of an installment that weighed closely on their pockets, typically subjecting themselves to residing in an unfinished home and with inadequate infrastructure. As I’ve seen in quite a few researches on the topic, these homeowners of a single property, the place they dwell, say it was price it.
Based on the PNAD (Nationwide Family Pattern Survey 2019), performed by IBGE, 72.5% of Brazilian households dwell of their properties, of which 92% are paid and eight% are paid.
The determine was confirmed by a survey carried out in 2021 and revealed this yr by Datafolha, in partnership with the startup Quinto Andar, which exhibits that 70% of Brazilians have their very own house (89% for a price) and that, even among the many poorest inhabitants, the proportion of householders is excessive: 69% at school C and 61% in courses D and E.
For these residents, taking up their properties meant loads, loads. It’s the assure that, even in acute conditions of unemployment, diminished wages, illness or poorly paid retirement, they’ll be capable to survive with a sure dignity. It’s no coincidence that 91% of younger individuals between 21 and 24 declare that they need their very own house.
It’s a “household good”, which is a part of the survival technique of the poorest and most prosperous, an indispensable foundation for elevating youngsters, for welcoming kin left homeless and, probably, the idea for acquiring extra earnings. . , with a small enterprise or renting a room.
Now, these households who, with a lot sacrifice, have obtained their very own properties, are threatened with being utterly homeless by the invoice 4.188 / 2021, proposed by Bolsonaro, which authorizes using “household belongings” as a assure of loans and, if the resident is unable to pay the debt, permits the financial institution to take the property the place the particular person lives, to pay it off.
Wednesday was accepted by the Chamber of Deputies and went to the Senate, the place they’ll talk about. Its advocates argue that utilizing the property as collateral for the mortgage will make it simpler to grant credit score and decrease rates of interest and that the choice to use for the mortgage might be as much as the borrower.
Thus it occurs that, with this risk open, many Brazilians in debt and determined within the face of excessive rates of interest and the shortcoming to pay their money owed will select to pledge their solely property as collateral for brand new loans, which they’ll then have problem in acquiring. repay.
The PL permits using the identical property as collateral for a number of loans, as much as the restrict of its worth, which can find yourself producing, in a situation of unemployment, diminished earnings and default, a means of over-indebtedness.
Based on a survey by the Nationwide Confederation of Shopkeepers and the SPC (Credit score Safety Service), 4 out of 10 grownup Brazilians had been in default in April 2022, which implies greater than 60 million individuals with excellent credit score bureaus. The pattern is for individuals to repay their money owed and rising difficulties.
Below these circumstances, if this invoice is just not blocked, within the coming years we may see a generalized foreclosures of their properties, aggravating the already critical housing downside. We can watch widespread scenes in the USA, the place even middle-class households are evicted and compelled to dwell in vehicles, trailers or on the road.
Why cannot the property the place the household lives, if it’s the solely property, be pledged?
The authorized establishment of “household property” goals to guard household housing, which is taken into account the idea of society by our Structure. It may be thought of a proper, which prevents the foreclosures of the property the place the household lives. In Brazilian laws, its origins are historic, which might result in questioning the constitutionality of the proposed legislation.
“Bem de Família” was born within the civil code of 1916. In Estado Novo, which sought to unfold house possession and shield small properties, a 1941 decree-law restricted the utmost values of protected properties, a restriction that it was eradicated in 1979, which prevented the foreclosures of properties of any worth.
In 1990 the legislation 8009 created the so-called “obligatory household property”, imposed by the state itself as a rule of public order, ie not depending on the desire of the proprietor, as a way to shield the property that homes the household. All these guidelines are based mostly on the concept of defending the household house, guaranteeing it a roof and stopping its destruction.
For the low-income inhabitants and even the impoverished center class, house possession is a part of a survival technique in a society the place social ensures are scarce and inadequate. The home is the final trench the place the household protects itself from the numerous financial and social threats it suffers every day.
This actuality opened up in the course of the pandemic when many misplaced their earnings. Those that had their very own properties managed to get by, albeit precariously, with emergency assist of R $ 600. The tenants (27% of Brazilians) confronted huge difficulties, as the help was not sufficient to pay for the hire and meals.
In consequence, many had been evicted and the choice was to dwell with kin, take refuge in some occupation or go to the streets, a vacation spot that has made the town a refuge for the homeless, as seen in São Paulo.
As a substitute of addressing the extreme housing disaster with priorities and investments aimed on the low-income inhabitants, the Bolsonaro authorities, which paralyzed Observe 1 of Minha Casa Minha Vida (now Casa Verde Amarela), provides gas to the hearth, encouraging individuals already indebted to take extra credit score than they will repay, with the chance of dropping the lodging obtained with a lot sacrifice.